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CEED Project Abstracts 2002-2003

Centre for Water Research

Graduate School of Management

School of Civil & Resource Engineering

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School of Computer Science & Software Engineering

School of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering

School of Oil & Gas Engineering

School of Mechanical Engineering

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Abstracts

Punching Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Flat- Slab Bridges Sean de Prazer
School of Civil & Resource Engineering
Main Roads Western Australia

This paper provides insight into the actual punching shear capacity of typical Main Roads Western Australia flat-slab bridges. The full-scale testing facilitating such determinations is outlined below. So to is an investigation of the results obtained by this testing. This analysis is aimed at providing a model able to more accurately predict the true capacity of these concrete bridges than the previous code based determinations.

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Gulf of Mexico: The Deepwater Field Development Decision – Oil & Gas Transport Considerations
Benjamin Hawter
School of Civil & Resource Engineering
Woodside Energy Australia

Woodside has identified the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) as a key area for international expansion of exploration and production activities. Participation in US government lease sales is one procedure for obtaining a portfolio of deepwater acreage. As part of this thesis, software was developed to generate screening efficiencies for the lease block selection process – with a focus on automating selection of oil and gas transport routes from the deepwater to the US Gulf Coast. Further, a comprehensive survey of deepwater GOM transport and process infrastructure developed an understanding of drivers critical to the field development decision.

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Swell Waves: Height Relationships and Relationships in Three Locations
Corran Hockey
School of Civil & Resource Engineering
Woodside Energy Ltd

Woodside has a number of gas developments that are situated in locations where swell is the limiting design criteria. These include those in the Great Australian Bight where the 100-year significant wave heights (Hs) are in the range of 12m to 16m, Mauritania in West Africa and off the Northwest Cape in Western Australia. Understanding the distribution of individual wave heights in the swell wave trains is required to estimate the expected single maximum wave height (EHmax) and the expected wave crest elevation, from which the deck elevation can be set. Well-founded methods have been developed and verified for estimating the EHmax/Hs ratio in normal sea states where the Forristall modified Rayleigh distribution is used. This is not, however, validated for swell wave conditions, where the ratio would be expected to be smaller leading to lower loadings and lower deck elevations.
For the highest ambient, non-cyclonic sea-states at Woodside’s Vincent development, the peak enhancement factor when the JONSWAP spectra was fitted to the measurements approached 1.0, that of the Pierson-Moskowitz (PM) spectrum. This peak enhancement factor is directly proportional to the FPSO mooring loadings and surge motions, and if it can be proved that these higher ambient sea states are swell dominated and originating in the Southern Ocean, it will provide additional confidence to allow the use of the PM spectrum for design purposes, resulting in lower loadings and surge motions.
Accordingly, the aims of the project are to establish the Hmax/Hs ratio and investigate the peak enhancement factor and validity of the Forristall and Rayleigh distribution functions for swell conditions. This will be done initially by an analysis of eleven months of wave data collected at Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean, where the sea state is characterised by an almost constant swell.

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Numerical Analysis of Responses and Damage of Steel Traffic Barriers
Suk Kwan Tang
School of Civil & Resource Engineering
Main Roads Western Australia

Prior to this study, MRWA designed certain traffic barrier systems using a linear elastic static method. Although this method is adequate, it is too conservative and will underestimate the actual capacity of the traffic barrier systems in question. Finite element non-linear plastic analysis may provide enough accuracy to justify use of traffic barrier systems under the revised Bridge Code in cases where linear elastic static analysis may have deemed them unacceptable. Static analyses are carried out using the commercial software package LS-DYNA and are conducted in accordance with Regular and Medium Barrier performance levels specified in AS 5100.2.

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Experimental Evaluation of Punching Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Flat-Slab to Column Connection
Tsz Kit Tse
School of Civil & Resource Engineering
Main Roads Western Australia

Recent revisions on load ratings and load capacity factors imposed by the AustRoads Bridge Design Code have deemed many bridges in Western Australia with flat slab to column connection to be insufficient in punching shear capacity. Main Roads Western Australia, the managing road authority, is interested in investigating the in situ behaviour of these types of bridges through a destructive bridge test in conjunction with a test full scale model. This paper will discuss the development of the computer model that attempts to integrate the results obtained from the in situ and laboratory tests.

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Evaluation of Process Mentor in a Web-Based Project
Paul Chenery
School of Computer Science & Software Engineering
Office of Crime Prevention

Software Process Methodologies are attempts to impose an orderly, systematic and disciplined approach to developing software with the aim of making software development more predictable and more efficient.
Web-based projects are often undertaken without due process in an ad-hoc fashion. This is because of the extreme pressures of working in an accelerated web-based environment, and the reality that web projects are otften small and limited by project teams with few members.
I implemented a methodology called Process Mentor for a real life project, developing a website with Coldfusion for the Office of Crime Prevention, in the Western Australian State Government. The aim of the project was to compare the weight of theory and hype surrounding software process methodologies and Process Mentor in particular to the actual experiences of implementing the process in a real project.

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Cossack Pioneer Reservoir Decline and Facility Reliability Modelling
Shaun Bambridge
School of Oil & Gas Engineering
Woodside Energy Limited

The Cossack Pioneer Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel is located offshore Western Australia and is operated by Woodside Energy Ltd. At present the facility produces oil at rates above 120 000 barrels per day, but reservoir predictions indicate that this is due to decline sharply until end of field life projected for 2013. This paper looks at a study conducted to model the facility reliability with respect to reservoir decline so that equipment use and maintenance activity can be phased to match the decline profile. This will essentially allow operating expenditure to be reduced in order to offset the decreased revenues associated with production decline thus maximising net present value of the asset.

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Evaluation of the Sand Control Systems for the Chinguetti Field Development
Matthew Howell
School of Oil & Gas Engineering
Woodside Energy Limited

The problems caused by sand production in a field development make sand control systems an important part of the completion string. Woodside Energy’s Chinguetti Field Development has a high sanding potential and so control systems will need to be installed in order to ensure that the sand production, and therefore the associated effects, will be minimised. This paper makes a preliminary appraisal of the applicability of the available sand control systems and provides a brief description of the those that are deemed to be applicable.

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Simulation in a Complex Geological Environment
Martin Jacobs
School of Oil & Gas Engineering
Woodside Energy Limited

Streamline simulation is a very powerful tool used in reservoir simulation. Software owned by Shell, 3DSL, is one of the latest developments in streamline simulation software technology. Through Shell, Woodside Energy has access to 3DSL and is just beginning to explore the advantages that streamline simulation offers. The application of 3DSL in the design stage of the Mauritania Field Development is of particular interest to Woodside. This paper focuses on the use of streamline simulation, through 3DSL. It takes you through the simulation of a very basic model, progressing to the full scale modelling of the Mauritanian field.

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Analysis of Multiphase Flowmeter Sensitivity to Changing Reservoir Fluid Properties
Ben Thomas
School of Oil & Gas Engineering
Woodside Energy Limited

Multiphase metering is one of the latest technologies to be embraced by the oil and gas industry. Multiphase flowmeters meters are available for a wide range of applications, including production allocation, reservoir management, well testing and custody transfer. Woodside Energy Limited installed a Roxar 1900VI Multiphase Flowmeter on their Echo/Yodel development as the primary production allocation system. This paper examines the operating principles of the meter and the sensitivity of the meter to changing reservoir fluid properties.

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Internal Waves and Benthic Mixing Processes on the North West Shelf
Kenny K.W.Lim
Centre for Water Research
Woodside Energy Ltd

The generation and reflection of internal waves off sloping bottoms can result in the intensification of near-bottom velocities and significant mixing which can lead to possible transport of sediments at the seabed, as indicated by recent studies of continental slopes. This study combines a linear theory internal wave propagation with experimental studies of internal wave-induced mixing in the North Rankin region on the Australian North West Shelf to illustrate possible regions where significant mixing and large shear are likely to occur as a result of internal waves. For the M2 and M4 internal wave frequency the model estimates approximately 20% to 30% of the entire North Rankin region respectively, is susceptible to high energy mixing events. As stratification increases, the total area decreases while during weak stratification, the total area increases, varying at most 4 %.


Analysis of Fremantle Inner Harbour Siltation Patterns

Mark Nicholls
Centre for Water Research
Fremantle Port Authority

Siltation in the Fremantle Inner Harbour has the potential to effect shipping access to the port. Analysis of depth changes in the harbour over the past decade found that current movements have caused a meandering channel to develop that controls the distribution of sediments within the harbour. Analysis of ADCP data and current measurements taken from the Railway Bridge were used to verify these findings.


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Performance Assessment of a Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Treatment
Shelly Stain
Centre for Water Research
Kellogg Brown & Root

The objective of this study was to carry out a performance assessment of a free surface constructed wetland used to polish tertiary treated wastewater at the Busselton Wastewater Treatment Plant. A key objective of the assessment was to compare results with design prediction. The study examined the hydraulic characteristics of the wetland through a tracer study using Rhodamine WT and flow visualisation. Under conditions of uniform flow, the mean residence time in the wetland was estimated to be 52 days, but the first appearance of tracer in outflow from the wetland occurred approximately 3.3 days after the tracer injection. Flow visualisation experiments confirmed the presence of preferential flow paths and also showed that wind has an effect on modifying mixing pathways. Analysis of water quality parameters showed that although preferential flow is present, the wetland remains effective in nutrient and suspended solids removal.

Coastal Shipping of Liquefied Natural Gas
Paul Italiano
Graduate School of Management
Woodside Energy Limited

Natural gas is capturing a larger share of the global energy market each year. Environmentally cleaner than oil or coal, natural gas is emerging as a potent alternative to oil and coal as a fuel for electricity generation and industry energy needs. Natural gas is typically transported to markets via extensive pipeline networks, however the economics of this model work best for concentrated energy markets that can be reached by dry land pipelines. Compared to global markets, the Australian energy market is small and fragmented. Individual contracts to supply energy needs to gas consumers are typically for volumes insufficient to achieve the economies of scale necessary under the existing industry paradigm, forcing gas producers to secure a number of long term contracts in order to generate a satisfactory return. A low-cost means of transporting smaller volumes of natural gas to markets on the eastern seaboard may allow a gas producer to enter the Australian energy market without requiring the scale required presently. Using barges to ship small quantities of LNG is an emerging technology in the natural gas industry and it has been speculated that, for certain markets, this option may prove to be more cost-effective than using traditional LNG carriers. Financial modelling using parameters for actual markets along Australia’s eastern seaboard supports this hypothesis, showing that using barges with a capacity of approximately 10,000 m3 to supply LNG for electricity generation in specific markets would be far more cost-effective than using an LNG carrier. However as the volume transported increases, the distance covered increases or the number of supply contracts increases, the cost advantage over LNG carriers diminishes.

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Attractiveness of Private Investment in the New Eucalypt Sawlog Scheme
Natasha van Heemst
Graduate School of Management
Water & Rivers Commission

The financial modelling suggests that involvement with establishment of the industry is unlikely to be attractive to private sector investors. This is due primarily to two factors, the long growing cycle and an unsatisfactory real rate of return (3.3 percent). The benefits of greenhouse gas credits increased the calculated real rate of return to 4.8 percent; however this remains an unsatisfactory rate of return for private investors. These results indicate that the state government may need to consider contributing to some of the industry establishment costs to encourage private investment.

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Driver Assisted Video System
Craig Gianoli
School of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering
Western Australian Government Railways

To ensure commuter safety, the doors of the railcar must be closed before it can depart from the station. Determining when the doors are clear to be closed is a problem that has traditionally required additional platform based staff. The Driver Assisted Video System (DAVS) was designed to permit driver dispatch of the trains thus lowering staffing costs while maintaining a high level of commuter safety.

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Lifecycle Strategy for 66kV Current and Voltage Transformers
Brett Norris
School of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering
Western Power Corporation

The majority of the metropolitan 66kV current and voltage transformers are reaching or have past their life expectancy. A lifecycle strategy is required to investigate the feasibility of delaying the transformer’s replacement and/or a review of the options available for replacing the units. Aligning the asset management plan that highlights asset replacement requirements, to the substation’s planned future presented in the network development plans, will allow an overall lifecycle strategy to be developed.

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Transients in Switching During Load Shedding
Sharon Wong
School of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering
Western Power

The proliferation of high-speed computers and sensitive electronic equipment in recent years, have highlighted the importance of power quality. The devices and equipment being applied on the power system now, often includes microprocessor-based controls and power electronic devices that are more sensitive to power quality variations than equipment applied in the past. The load shedding methodology used during periods of generation shortage or high demand creates transient disturbances in a power system which can create poor power quality conditions. As the consequence, controls of sensitive electronic equipment can be affected resulting in nuisance tripping or misoperation or even the complete failure of devices.

The project undertaken aims to investigate and analyse the effects of load shedding on the power distribution network and determine whether the switching transients taking place during the load rotation can damage sensitive electronic equipment.

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Calcareous Deposits on Sub Sea Structures
Kayne Binks
School of Mechanical Engineering
Woodside Energy Limited

Calcareous deposits on subsea structures cause considerable difficulty when undertaking subsea maintenance. To examine the properties of calcareous deposits produced under known conditions, a test sample was prepared, placed offshore, and subsequently retrieved and analysed. Calcareous deposit formed non-uniformly on the test piece that was subsea for 47 days. Differences in the structure and chemical composition of the substrate and free surfaces of the calcareous deposit were observed. The substrate surface was found to contain three phases of calcareous deposit, whereas the free surface contained only a single phase. Physical properties of deposit determined to be uniform were measured. Gouge and scratch hardness of the deposit measured 5.6 and 6.4 units of hardness respectively (as defined in ASTM D3363-00). The average thickness of the deposit was 85 mm.

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Explosion Bonded Titanium Corrosion within High Pressure Acid Leach Autoclaves
Nigel Hill
School of Mechanical Engineering
Anaconda Nickel ltd.

Factors affecting the corrosion behaviour of the Explosion Bonded Grade 1 Titanium (EBTi-1) protective lining in service within Anaconda’s High Pressure Acid Leach Autoclaves have been assessed. SEM microanalysis of the scale formed on the surface of the Ti lining within the autoclaves revealed no evidence of the scale directly affecting the lining material. Electrochemical measurements have been made of the EBTi-1 in a variety of corrosive solutions containing sulphuric acid, Fe2+, Cl- and Mg2+ in concentrations typical of those found within the autoclaves over a range of temperatures between 20 and 90ºC. It has been found that Cl- assists the initial passivation of exposed Ti surfaces but that, along with Fe2+, it attacks the thicker passivating oxide layers typically found upon aged or anodised EBTi-1. At high anodic polarisation, the EBTi-1 was found to corrode preferentially at grain boundaries but exhibited no sign of pitting corrosion. Optical microscopic examination of the EBTi-1 revealed occasional porosity throughout the thickness of the Ti layer that may serve as an initiator for pitting corrosion within the autoclaves.

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Outer Harbour Maintenance Prioritisation
Hamilton Stott
School of Mechanical Engineering
Fremantle Ports

This paper illustrates some of the difficulties encountered when shifting from breakdown maintenance towards preventative maintenance. There is a trade off between the amount spent on maintenance and the costs incurred due to breakdowns. In order to find the optimal amount of maintenance to perform it is first necessary to know the failure patterns of the equipment concerned. Because of the lack of available failure data use of expert opinions must be made. This too has many difficulties but can lead to an accurate result. An example is made of methods to calculate the optimal frequency of inspections.

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Packing Density of Non-Spherical Particles
Andrew Wibowo
School of Mechanical Engineering
Rio Tinto

The packing of non-spherical particles has been studied and the linear packing model was experimentally examined. The concepts of sphericity, equivalent spherical diameter and packing diameter were thoroughly discussed and were incorporated in the model. Experimental results indicate that the linear packing model is promising however still needs some fine tuning.

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