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Overview of CEED
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CEED Project Abstracts 2008-2009
Australian Centre for Geomechanics
School of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering
- 25 Year Optimal Gerneration Model
Study into the True Life-Cycle of Electric Motors
Impact of Grid Connected Inverters on Distribution Network
Power Transfer Limits on Rural Distribution
Condition Assessment of Distribution Conductors
Retropective Review of Immisible Flood at Laminaria Corallina
Quantitative Indicators of Panel Operator Load and tools to increase Panel Operator Effectiveness
Sustainable concrete asset disposale optimisation
School of Enviromental Systems Engineering
School of Mechanical Engineering
Critical Pipe Hydraulic Modelling
CFD Modeling of Pipe and Fitting Wear
Study into the effectiveness and whole life cost between ductile iron and stainless steel pumps
Optimum Aluminium Sheet Alloy & Temper for Panel Manufacturing
Assuring the integrity of Air Cooled Exchanger Tube to Tube Sheet Welds
Adding Value to Waste
Antiscaling in the Alumina Industry:Financial and Enviromental Assessment
Developing a Bearing Spin-Casting Facility
Challenging Conventional Erosional Velocity Limitations for High Rate Gas Wells
Inspection data management
Mass balance of the precipitation process of the Bayer process to study the antiscaling effect of the IPI technology
Deterioration fo asbestos-cement pipes
Development of a thermal plant indicator for boiler heaters
Antiscaling in the Alumina Industry: Characterisation of Scale Build Up
Assuring the integrity of air-cooled heat-exchanger tube to tubesheet welds
Sustainable Concrete asset disposal optimisationJared FitzclarenceSchool of Mechanical EngineeringWater corporationFaced with numerous assets requiring disposal and rapidly increasing disposal costs, the Water Corportion is looking to the fledgling concrete recycling industry in Perth, Western Australia to determine how it can be leveraged to facilitate cost effective solutions to concrete asset disposal. This paper outlines the limitations imposed by transportation distances and presents a model for identifying optimal disposal methods. Work is ongoing to include support for policy biasing, towards enviromental performance and social benifits, to produce an enhanced model that accounts for corporate policy. A look is also taken at what is changing within the industry and how recent government policies are powering a shift towards more responsible operation. Concrete recycling procedures are included, outlining proven markets for recycled material from global experience, to demonstrate the industries potential to absorb substantial increases in the volume to material diverted from landfill.
Evaluation of Advanced Rock Blasting MethodsNathan OldfieldAustralian Centre for GeomechanicsRio Tinto
The abstract text is formatted with the defined style “PaperAbstractText” – this style has the text justified, but with margins 10 mm narrower than the main text body. The font is 11 point times (in italics). The abstract should be limited to less than 200 words. The abstract should provide a clear, concise executive summary of the document. It should briefly identify the reasons for undertaking the project, the objectives and/or deliverables of the project, the approaches used to achieve the objectives, and a summary of the key findings or recommendations. The abstract serves as the “shop window” for a presentation – in multi-session conferences such as the CEED Seminar, delegates will scan the abstract to determine whether they should attend a talk.
Antiscaling in the Alumina Industry: Characterisation of Scale Build UpDavid NgSchool of Mechanical EngineeringSavcor
Scale growth in Bayer processes occurs when supersaturated aluminium hydroxide solutions come in contact with solid surfaces. Scale deposition on process equipment leads to reduced performance and increased downtime due to cleaning. A new anti – scaling technology, developed by Savcor Finn, utilises an electrochemical polarising technique to reduce the scale growth at the vessel walls. Further research into this technology to understand the mechanism in which it acts, as well as quantifying the benefits will allow it to be applied to a wide variety of processes where scale growth is an issue. A synthetic Bayer liquor was created, and held at 85°C, while mild steel plates were inserted into the liquor to act as a source of scale growth. Two separate scale samples were collected, with and without the application of the anti – scaling technology. Analysis of these samples showed that the application of the anti – scaling technology resulted in a significant drop in scale growth rates, as well as a reduction in hardness and adhesive ability.
Adding value to wasteWah Sun ChinSchool of Mechanical EngineeringChallenge Dairy
Challenge Australian Dairy Pty Ltd produces about 1265 tonnes of sludge and 114 000 liters of wastewater annually from its Capel processing plant. The company’s expenditure on treatment and disposal of the wastes sums up to AU$ 350,000 per annum. These wastes are applied to land without recovering potential resource values. The project will look at methods and technologies which allow valuable resources in wastes to be recovered; and appropriate equipment designs which are required to achieve the objectives. Sludge can be chemically treated and stabilized into soil conditioners. Wastewater may be reused or recycled in water using operations and for general cleaning purposes. A fundamental financial analysis of the proposed design compared to an existing treatment facility in terms of net present value will be carried out. Laboratory analysis of wastewater streams from water using operations suggests that tertiary and disinfection treatments are required for producing “Class A+” quality recycled water for use in area where there are risk of human exposure, according to the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2004, Basic nutrient contents of sludge are found to be adequate for use as soil conditioners, albeit requiring further treatment. Despite high capital expenditure, Challenge Australian Dairy Pty Ltd may contribute to the environment through reduce waste discharge, as well as to benefit financially over the long term.
25 Year Optimal Generation ModelMarilyn LiewSchool of Electrical, Electronic & Computer EngineeringSynergy
In 2006, the Western Power Corporation was disaggregated into four companies; Western Power as the network provider, Verve Energy as the generator, Synergy as the retailer and Horizon Power, the regional provider. As part of the disaggregation, the Vesting contract was formed and relates to the supply of capacity and energy from Verve Energy to Synergy. Synergy is expected to procure over 2000MW of electricity within the next 10 years to meet its expected future load. As part of the Vesting contract, Synergy is required to acquire capacity and energy in place of that provided under the contact via a displacement mechanism. Also, government policy requires at least 20% of the generation of electricity be produced from renewable sources by the year 2020. This modifies the selection of new generation facilities. The main objective of this project is to use the General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) to create a 25 year plan of electricity procurement options available to Synergy. GAMS is a high level modelling system used for mathematical programming and optimisation. It consists of a language compiler and high-performance solvers, tailored for complex modelling applications. This project involves modelling the cost of each option available to generate electricity at a minimum cost based on the uncertainty of future cost of various resources.
Study into the True Life-cycle cost of electric motorsIrfan AmeerSchool of Electrical, Electronic & Computer EngineeringWater CorporationThe outcomes of this CEED project, done in conjunction with the Water Corporation, attempts to assess the financial viability of upgrading electric motors to its higher efficiency equivalent in lieu of rising electricity costs and carbon emission taxes. Selected motors owned by the corporation are chosen to form a basis for the construction of induction motor life-cycle cost models. A predictive life cycle cost model is developed for the purposes of a design and test process which determines the likelihood of an electric motor benefiting from a higher efficiency upgrade based on its size, load, speed, year of replacement, efficiency, operational period, cost of rewinding and maintenance regime. Based on the availability, and accuracy of data, cost elements are determined either parametrically, analogously or probabilistically. The latter will be tested by simulation modelling software to explore data uncertainty. The applicability of the models is geared towards use in water and wastewater pump stations. The findings of this project are important to the Water Corporation as it may result in the Corporation reaffirming or modifying their current strategies in their management of electric motors.
Impact of Grid Connected Inverters on Distribtion NetworkBoris JurisicSchool of Electrical, Electronic & Computer EngineeringWestern Power Corporation
This project seeks to elucidate the mechanisms affecting the maintenance of a stable electricity grid encompassing an increasing number of distributed generator systems (such as photovoltaic and possibly other renewable energy sources). The limit of renewable energy penetration, particularly photovoltaic (PV) generation is sought so that Western Power (WP) has a quantitative measure to modify its current regulations regarding distributed generator requirements..
Power Transfer Limits on Rural Distribution FeedersSaurabh BhattSchool of Electrical, Electronic & Computer EngineeringWestern Power Corporation
This paper presents a power transfer capability of rural distribution feeders. Western Power is concerned about planning to avoid voltage collapse issues in long rural feeders. Hence, Western Power wishes to explore reinforcement option to increase power transfer on rural feeders. The main objective of this project is to determine power transfer limitations on rural distribution feeders, in order to maintain voltage stability. This project also examines the Voltage versus Power characteristic (graph between receiving end Voltage and Power) with different reinforcement options like Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOMS), Static VAR compensators (SVC), Capacitor Banks, Series Capacitors and Voltage Regulators across distribution feeders. On successful completion of the project, Western Power will have a better understanding of the benefits of the options for voltage control on rural feeders to maximise the power transfer. This will provide better feeder utilization and improve the use of long rural distribution feeders without exceeding power transfer limit. In turn, this will increase the reliability to customers and reduce significantly the Key Performance Indicators of System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) and System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI).This will lead to efficient and prudent network investment decisions.
Condition Assessment of Distribution ConductorsViswanathan AyakkadSchool of Electrical, Electronic & Computer EngineeringWestern Power Corporation
The current system of rural distribution conductors comprises of underslung earth conductors. This system is prone to conductor clashing and other inherent issues relating to the reliability of operation. This paper investigates the possibility of shifting the earth conductor above the phase conductors. The performance of the systems are compared on certain key factors like maximum power transferred and the shielding to the telecom lines provided by the overhead earth conductors. Power flow has been used to plot the Power curve and the shielding factor is calculated using a theoretical model based upon the mutual impedances between the conductors. The shielding factors have been evaluated in balanced condition and unbalanced fault condition.
This paper also discusses the procedure involved in the study of the condition of steel based conductors in the distribution networks has also been presented. Corrosion degradation and subsequent breakage of steel conductors is a substantial issue for Western Power which will have both safety and reliability implications.
Retrospective Review of Immisible Flood at Laminaria CorallinaJakov OstojicSchool of Electrical, Electronic & Computer EngineeringWoodside Energy Ltd
This paper presents the investigation of various reservoir parameters which affect the efficiency with which oil is displaced from a reservoir with a miscible fluid. Two fluids are deemed miscible when no interfacial tension or phase boundary exists between them. Woodside is interested in the possibility of optimising miscible flooding on its currently producing Laminaria and Corallina fields.
The main objective of this project is to investigate the sensitivity of miscible flooding to various reservoir parameters using Eclipse 300, and apply the findings to the Laminaria field. A box model was used for the simulations as the shape and dimensions of the model were not the primary focus. Rather, the behaviour of Laminaria oil and miscible gas flood under various reservoir parameters.
Vertical permeability was found to have a significant impact on miscible flood efficiency as it controlled the volume of reservoir oil contacted by the flood. Stratification also proved influential in terms of cumulative recovery with the layering pattern, Ktop > Kbottom or Ktop < Kbottom, changing cumulative oil at EOFL by almost 30%.
The findings from the analysis allow the optimal injection location and depth for miscible flooding projects to be better estimated based on reservoir parameters.
Quantitative Indicators of Panel Operator Load and Tools to increase Panel Operator EffectivenessLucy MunozSchool of Electrical, Electronic & Computer EngineeringWoodside Energy Ltd
In a world of increasing complexity in process design, control system design, open architechture and increased demand by business systems on the control system and it's panel operator, quantitaive measures of operator load are required. In the recent past, there have been several incidents, Texas City Refinery and Longford Gas Plant to name just two, where high load on the panel operator have contributed to loss of life and loss of plant capital. This thesis will attempt to firstly quantify the measurements that can be made to analysis operator load, and determine the target levels for optimal operator effectiveness. These measurements will then be matched to tools used to increase the operator effectiveness to allow for implementation of these tools as required. A site audit will be undertaken at the Karratha Gas Plant based on the findings of this thesis, and recommendations based on this work will be made. If time (and resources) permit, some of these tools will be implemented and a re-audit will be undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the controls.
Deliverables for this project are:
1) A Preliminary report outlining the quantitative measures
2) A Preliminary report outlining the target values
3) A Preliminary report outlining the controls
4) A Preliminary rrport outlining the Site Audit Results and Recommendations
5) A final report summarising the work (which may be in the form of the thesis)
Targeting Strategic Tree and Perennial Pasture Planting to Reduce Stream Salinity of the Warren River Recovery CatchmentSamuel ClearyEnviromental Systems EngineeringDept of Water
The Warren River was identified by the Government of Western Australia as a potential water resource for the south-west. In order to reduce stream salinity to potable standards, tree and perennial pasture plantings have been promoted to lower the groundwater table and decrease the salt load inputs. Multiple land-use change scenarios were created following the guidelines of mixed tree and perennial pasture plantings, targeting high salt load Response Units in low rainfall zones were modelled using the LUCICAT model. Tree plantings were shown to be more effective than perennial pasture planting in reducing stream salinity in the Warren Catchment. Summer active perennial pasture plantings increase stream salinity due to the reduction in transpiration during the dominant winter rainfall period in the SWWA resulting in greater runoff and salt load inputs into the river. Strategic tree and perennial pasture plantings are not likely to achieve the goal of reducing stream salinity to potable standards by 2030 in the Warren Catchment without the intervention of a hard engineered approach.
Critical Pipe Hydraulic ModellingYun WangSchool of Mechanical EngineeringAlcoa of Australia
The existing piping system at the refinery have changed siginicantly since installation. The Existing hydraulic models are not up to date. This project will involve developing hydraulic models using Fathom for critical piping system at the Kwinana Refinery.
CFD Modelling of Pipe and Fitting WearLin-Li YongSchool of Mechanical EngineeringAlcoa of Australia Ltd
Alumina refining requires pumping highly abrasive slurries over long distances. There is significant wear which, if not monitored and managed properly, can result in spillage which is both an enviromental and safety issue for the refinery. The objective of this project is to model the slurry flow through the piping system using CFD to better understand the wear patterns and provide information to better design the piping systems.
Optimum Aluminium Sheet Alloy & Temper for Panel ManufacturingJayden MairSchool of Mechanical EngineeringAyres Composite panels
The vast majority of our production is comprised of panels having 0.5mm aluminium sheet faces, bonded to aluminium honeycomb cores. In the early days we used 5005 H34 (half hard) aluminium sheets, as that was the most commercially available alloy and temper. Later we used 5005 H38 (fully hard) sheets, as we do not have to form the sheets and maximum impact strength is desirable. Most recently (probably in the last 4 years) we switched to 5052 and 5251 alloys (we use both interchangeably, as both these alloys are very similar and some mills produce the one alloy and some produce the other instead). Both are procured in H38 hardness.
We made the switch because one of our customers told us that 5005 alloy was "rubbish"!! (and nearly all our customers are builders of aluminium boats so they do know some things about aluminium!). However, boat builders usually need to form and weld their alloys, so even their recommendations to us about the optimum alloy for our application are not necessarily correct.
Strangely, all of the many distributors of aluminium sheet seem to know little about the properties of the various alloys which are produced. They don't want to make recommendations about which alloy would be best to use for our application (and I wouldn't trust a recommendation from them anyway!). There are plenty of websites which give the properties of alloys, but it is hard to relate the published properties to our application.
There are other complications too: we heat the sheets to approx 135C, and this probably alters the hardness of the sheets. We need two main properties in our aluminium face sheets:
• a very good level of corrosion resistance in marine environment (which we believe confines us to the 5000-series of alloys);
• highest impact strength.
This issue came to the fore earlier this year, when we were required to propose a panel for the fabrication of food carts in aircraft. One of the key criteria was impact strength. We managed to meet the criteria, but only by proposing a hybrid glassfibre/aluminium panel face. Perhaps if we were already using the optimum alloy for impact strength, we could have met the spec without adding glassfibre? We have access to a full description of the impact tester called up in that aircraft spec.
The technical objective of this CEED project is to find the optimum aluminium sheet alloy and temper for our panel manufacturing. The student might:
• make the test jig (which is a very simple thing, a steel cylinder falls down a tube on to the panel from a certain height, then a steel ball bearing is put into the dimple created, so that a pair of callipers can be used to measure indentation depth;
• then select all the commonly-produced alloys which are said to have good anti-corrosion properties in marine environment;
• then obtain 0.5mm samples of all those alloys (in hardest available tempers), make panels with them and impact test.
Hopefully a small number of alloys will present themselves as the best for our purposes, so we may make the final selection based on price and availability. Possibly we could add a little investigation to see if the temper even matters (perhaps the heat treatment of the sheets during our processing makes the temper of the sheet when we buy it immaterial?).
The successful execution of this project is expected to lead to the generation of a commercial benefit to Ayres Composite Panels by optimising the impact strength and corrosion resistance of our products.
Study into the effectiveness and whole of life cost between ductile iron and stainless steel pumpsDaniel HabekostSchool of Mechanical EngineeringWater Corporation
The high upfront cost of stainless steel pumps have made it difficult for the Water Corporation to justify their purchase over coated ductile iron pumps. Life cycle analysis has shown that the capital cost of a pump only accounts for around 4% of the whole of life cost. The more influential cost is the operating cost which can accumulate to over 90% of the total costs. The aim of the research project is to design a life cycle cost (LCC) model for comparing whole of life costs of stainless steel and ductile iron pumps. This has been accomplished through the integration of parametric maintenance and purchase cost estimation equations and previously developed pump degradation models. The deterministic LCC model results have been verified using Monte Carlo analyses. The initial analysis on a medium to large pump with a duty power requirement of 318kW indicates ductile iron to be the favourable material for clear water application. Additional research is required on the internal casing degradation of ductile iron pumps to increase the reliability of the initial findings.
Challenging conventional erosional velocity limitations for high gas wellsDavid PanicSchool of Mechanical EngineeringChevron AustraliaFor prolific gas reservoirs, Big Bore gas wells can allow operators to increase production rates and reduce the number of wells required to meet production requirements. Currently few Big Bore gas wells operate worldwide with limited information available on the effect of increased extraction rates. Consequently operators require an improved understanding on the significance of increased extraction rates on erosion. The American Petroleum Institute’s Recommended Practice 14E (API RP 14E) provides a method for determining the threshold erosion velocity for gas wells, however API RP14E has been found to be conservative in predicting the erosional velocity in sand laden fluids. Some of the highest velocities within the production string are experienced through the subsurface safety valve (SSSV). Understanding erosion in the vicinity of the SSSV is important as its failure is both expensive and complex. This project will provide the information to determine the maximum allowable extraction rate within a Big Bore well. The flow of gas and sand through a typical 7 inch SSSV has been modelled using computational fluid dynamics. The erosion rate density is found to be highest at the constriction entrance to the SSSV, with little or no erosion observed through the SSSV itself. A 9 fold increase is observed as the extraction rate is increased from 200 to 400 MMSCF/d.
Assuring the integrity of air-cooled heat-exchanger tube to tubesheet weldsDavid SpencerSchool of Mechanical EngineeringBP Kwinana Refinery
Air-cooled Fin Fan Heat Exchangers are used to many cool process fluids on a crude oil refinery. These heat exchangers are generally of a single pass design which consists of two large rectangular ‘header’ boxes, an inlet and outlet connect by a number of finned tubes with air blown past them by a fan. The only inspection access into these boxes is through a ‘plugsheet’. The internal pressure, type of fluid and temperature within the heat exchanger determine the thickness of the header box walls and the type of tube to tubesheet joint required by operation standards. Due to the simultaneous failure of several welded tube to tubesheet joints in a set of high pressure heat exchangers at BP Refinery Kwinana, a better method of assuring the integrity of these joints is being explored. An investigation identified the mechanisms causing the failure as a combination of corrosion and an environmentally induced cracking mechanism. This creates the desire for two sets of joint quality information; a determination of the extent of the external corrosion, and a method of detecting any cracks originating from the inaccessible weld root. This project involves investigating the stress distribution in the joints using by doing a finite element analysis. A Sample Header box was also manufactured to investigate the information that can be acquired utilising different Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods and devices.
Inspection data managementBrian GatesSchool of Mechanical EngineeringBP Kwinana RefineryThis project investigates a statistical analysis on both thickness measurements and corrosion rates within refinery pipework. Knowing what condition the pipework is in and at what rate it is deteriorating allows the inspection team to make reliable predictions on if the pipework is currently or the remaining time until, the pipework is no longer fit for service. In fitting a sample data, which is a representation of the pipework, to standard probability functions it is possible to model the total condition of the pipework with a degree of confidence. This confidence is a function of sample size, as more locations are included the greater percent of the pipework that is monitored. The objective is to optimise the required amount of inspection locations to the required confidence.The deliverable will be a two simple inspection management tools. The first instrument will have the operators input circuit conditions, measurements and the location of the measurements and this will return a minimum thickness and a confidence reading. The other tool will return a corrosion rate for the circuit. Ultimately the project should lead to the inspection management program being more efficient with its resources and the process will be more reliable, leading to reduced financial costs and increased plant integrity and safety for the refinery.
Mass balance of the precipitation process of the Bayer process to study the antiscaling effect of the IPI technologyJiate GuoSchool of Mechanical EngineeringSavcor Finn
Scale formation particularly around the walls of precipitators is an issue which has not only resulted in significant financial and environmental cost for many alumina refineries, but exposure to personal safety risk as well. Research in the field, however, has been very limited particularly regarding to scaling kinetics in precipitation tanks. The goal of this study is to formulate a mass balance model to predict the effect of scaling on the yield of alumina through modelling on Excel. Based on the comparison of the result, King’s equation is the most reasonable growth rate equation for the mass balance model. The alumina yield is observed to reduce significantly once the volume reduction goes beyond 10%. It expected that a sensitivity analysis not included in this paper will reveal more information about the impact of volume reduction on the alumina yield.
Deterioration fo asbestos-cement pipesThulasi SathiyaseelanSchool pf Mechanical EngineeringWater Corporation
Asbestos cement (AC) pipes make up 33% of the Water Corporation’s total pipe network, mainly reticulation piping. It has recently been found that they are not resistant to corrosion as assumed upon installation and the piping has experienced some damages over the past few decades. The replacement cost of the AC piping is estimated to be more than $1B for the existing system managed by Water Corporation. A strategy to minimise the cost is to be able to predict more accurately the condition of the pipes. For this, proper understanding of the AC pipes and their deterioration behaviour is to be established. This project aims to elucidate the condition of the pipes by analysing the structure and mechanical properties of the AC pipes that have been in service for a number of years. The mechanical properties of a sample of AC pipe were tested and were found to differ in their condition predicted by the model used by Water Corporation. Further micro-structural analysis reveals the difference seen in fibre and matrix content across the pipe cross-section. The difference in mechanical properties, and hence the condition of the pipe, is correlated to the bond interaction and leaching reaction-mechanism in the pipes.
Development of a Thermal Plant Indicator for Boiler HeadersBenjamin AndersonSchool of Mechanical EngineeringVerve Energy
Verve Energy has a large portfolio of power stations in the south west of Western Australia. The majority of these power stations contain boiler headers which operate at elevated temperatures and exhibit creep damage (which is a function of temperature and stress). The current Australian Standard AS/NZS 3788 specifies the procedure of how to predict operational life (if failure occurs through creep) for a know temperature but does not specify how and where one should determine this temperature. From Verve Energy's experience the critical locations exhibiting high tempertures and stresses are where the ligaments attach to a boiler header.
The objective of this project is to develop a thermal health indicator for boiler headers under the assumption that failure would occur due to creep. In order to acheive this objective the temperature at critical locations must be determined. This paper looks at the finite element method (FEM) to predict temperatures in a test rig, which represents a boiler header. The initial FEM results are found to reasonably reflect the temperatures collected directly from the test rig. Verve energy had the potential to save in excess of $100 000 for every year that a boiler header's operational life can be extended.
Developing a bearing spin-casting facilityChanel O'ConnorSchool of Mechanical EngineeringVerve Energy
Verve Energy has expressed concern over the method used to manufacture and repair the company’s whitemetal turbine bearings. Pour casting is currently used to cast the whitemetal however the alternative of using spin-casting, which is currently not available in Western Australia, offers a number of potential benefits. The objective of the project therefore is to identify these benefits and provide technical details of the machinery, equipment and materials required to develop a new spin-casting facility, together with estimates of the expected capital and operating costs. Current estimates value the facility at $1.89 million dollars with an investment of $568,200 in equipment. The ultimate aim is to determine whether spin-casting represents a viable alternative for Verve Energy and if it is not, to identify the conditions in which it will become viable. The project will advance the current state of the art by providing the first design proposal for a purpose built bearing spin-casting facility in Australia.